In acknowledgment of the increasing COVID-19 pandemic and deficiencies of laboratory-based molecular trial potential and reagents, multiple diagnostic test makers have evolved and started trading fast and easy-to-use tools to help testing outside of the laboratory surroundings.
However, these manageable kits for coronavirus tests are based either on the discovery of the proteins from the COVID-19/Coronavirus in respiratory samples (e.g., sputum, throat swab) or disclosure, in the blood or serum, of the human antibodies which are generated in response to the infection.
There are mainly two types of Coronavirus tests:-
PCR also is known as Polymerase Chain Reaction testing is a type of test which finds out the two specific types of SARS-Cov-2 genes. It is also known as Nucleic Acid Amplification tests (NAAT tests). This test method requires 3-4 hours of time for diagnosing whether a patient has a COVID-19 or not.
Procedures And Observations:
At first, a nasal swab or a throat swab is taken from the patient or a sputum sample is collected which includes mucus, saliva, and some cells. The specimen is then sent to the lab in a sterile tube or a vial where some expert professionals test for the presence of specific genetic information related to the virus. After that, the genetic information is mixed with certain reagents and placed into a toaster sized testing machine. If the sample contains the viral genetic material, positive results will return and if it doesn’t, negative results will return.
It can only determine the current status of COVID-19 in a patient and cannot say whether the patient has had it in the past or not.
Serological tests are also known as Antibody tests which determine antibodies present in the blood serum. The human body white blood cells produce these antibody proteins. This test can show us whether anyone was detected with the SARS-Cov-2 viruses or not, by counting the number of antibodies produced by the body to fight the virus (if present).
Procedures And Observations:
At first, blood is pricked from a finger or obtained from a vein through a needle. These blood samples are then transferred to a laboratory to detect a case of mild or low infections and also to find antibodies that especially are being applicable for the Sars-CoV-2 viruses. The above-mentioned test also finds potential donors who have developed immunity against the virus to donate blood to currently infected patients.
There’s still a big doubt about the accuracy of these coronavirus tests as the circumstances may worsen if the results of the test are not correct.
Moreover, the tests to identify the antibody replies to the COVID-19 in the society will be crucial assistance to the growth of vaccines. It also adds to our knowledge of the amount of virus between people who are not recognized through the active case finding and inspection efforts, the attack rate in the community, and the infection death rate.
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