We have all been taught about democracy in our school days, or we have come across the stories of dictatorship in Germany and Italy which is another type of government in itself. Apart from these two forms present on the opposite side of a continuum we rarely know anything about different kinds of governments that are practiced or have been practiced in different parts of the world.
Democracy is a most common form of government, in this, the main power lies in the hand of the people of that state hence the government is stated as by the people, of the people, and for the people. It is further divided into two categories i.e. Direct and Representative. In Direct, people directly take part in the legislative process whereas in the Representative form they elect an individual to take up that role. It decides the central party on the basis of majority voters.
In this form of government, a deity is considered as the head of the state and few ministers or in some case a King is their who act as an intercessor and carry out the requirements and other procedures through guidance provided by the deity. Although this kind of government may sound implausible in current age the truth is that this archaic form was practiced in several states, some of them are China, Japan, Israel, Tibet, and various others.
Autocracy is the government where a single party or a person has the absolute powers. The laws and legislation are all under the party power and no decision made by them is considered against the law. Although autocratic parties are seldom overthrown through mass insurrection or a violent means. Some examples in the present world include absolute monarchies such as Vatican City or single-party rule in China.
The term oligarchy has several nuances attached to its meaning, originally it was considered as the kind of government where instead of a single leader power is distributed and practiced by a little number of people. The contingent of people has a direct influence on the formation of law etc, the aforementioned group of people may be eminent people of nobility, intellectuals, wealth, etc. Some examples of oligarchy states are the United States, Zimbabwe, and Ukraine among others.
Monarchy was widely practiced in the past, in it, a single person is considered as the head of the state and rules over the people of his state, the person usually from a royal lineage. Although several countries have let go of such a system there are still some countries that follow their version of it. A crowned republic like in the United Kingdom, constitutional as practiced in Jordan or absolute monarchy in Saudi Arabia are some examples.
Dictatorship is one of the branches that come under autocracy and is marked by the absolute prohibition on opposition parties and complete power is in the hands of a single leader. During terms of dictatorship, there are several restrictions on the freedom of speech and communication is mostly propaganda based to revert any opponent policies. The dictatorship can be of different kinds such as Personalist, Military or Single Party, etc.
An example of North Korea can be taken to understand this type of government, under this leadership excessive control over the state, are practiced. Economic policies, state programs are all under a single leadership, and elections are done uncontested. Mass media is heavily censored and under control of the ruling party. Several people confuse totalitarianism with dictatorship but there exists a major difference between them, where a dictator governs over people without their consent, a totalitarian government exercises its control over people. It is about the extent of government rule over the citizens.
Philosopher such as Aristotle and Plato have considered it as the best form of government, in general terms it entailed the position of power in the hands of few people who wielded considerate amount of money and land, on the other hand, people favored individuals distinct in their ability to take initiative and leading others. Although the arrival of several revolutions resulted in many people losing their social status and hence aristocracy ceased to be. Oligarchy is said to be its refined form.
Instead of a working government, this concept works on the absence of government or any such ruling body. According to some people, anarchy is the solution to establishing a burgeoning society but in recent culture, it is associated more with chaos and violence. Anarchy has been subdivided further into two kinds namely Individualists, they believe in individual liberty and self-reliance, other is Social these anarchists believe in the equality among the masses.
Republic and Democracy seem similar in definition but the major difference between them comes in the form of representation of minorities. In a Democracy, the government is formed by the majority therefore very often minority’s problems get overlooked but in the Republic setup citizens decide a representative to communicate their problems instead and hence the distribution of power in the central government becomes more equal.