Poverty is multidimensional and we cannot define poverty in a single definition. In India, poverty is increasing day by day. Poverty not only includes a lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods but it also involves ill-health, malnutrition, and hunger, etc.
The world bank has classified the definition of poverty in many points. According to the world bank, Poverty is hunger, lack of shelter, not having a job and fear for the future, being sick and unable to go to a doctor.
Well, there are several types of poverty. Also, there are various criteria of people who belong to the lower class based on which poverty can be classified.
Let us have a look:
Absolute poverty is also known as extreme poverty or abject poverty. It involves the scarcity of basic food, clean water, shelter, education along with information. Extreme poverty is not so common in the countries which are very much developed. Those who face absolute poverty generally struggle to live their life. Apart from that many child deaths are also seen due to such kind of poverty. As an example, a family that generally sleeps on a railway station or road is poor if it is not able to earn food, water, or even a basic kutcha house to live.
It is defined by a social perspective where the standard of living is compared with the economic standards of the population living in surroundings. In simple terms, it is the lack of resources when compared to the society members. For example, a family has all the basic amenities like food, water, shelter, etc. but is not able to send their children to a good school.
It is not a permanent kind of poverty. Situational poverty can be seen when some adverse events take place such as environmental disasters, job loss, severe health issues, recession, etc. People can help themselves even with small assistance, as situational poverty comes because of an adverse and unexpected event. For example, In India after the 2008 recession, many people had faced job loss issues.
It is also known as chronic poverty. It is something that is passed to an individual and its family from one generation to another one. For example, The three to four generations born into poverty do not have tools to come out of this situation.
It generally occurs in rural or non-metro areas where the population is below 50,000. Rural poverty is seen in the areas where the job opportunities are less, the quality of education is poor and access to services is less too. As an example, people who face rural poverty issues are mostly seen doing farming and other menial work available to their surroundings.
Urban poverty occurs in the metropolitan and non-rural areas where the population is more than 50,000. In urban poverty, there is limited access to education, poor housing, and services, unhealthy and violent environment due to overcrowding, etc. For example, a family lacks necessities like affordable housing and also they live a stressful life.
Apart from these 6 types, there are also 2 more types of poverty which are Primary Poverty and Secondary Poverty.
Primary Poverty is a condition where income is not enough to maintain basic physical existence even if someone spends its money wisely. For example, a family earns rupees 500 per day but requires at least 700 to get food, water, medicine, etc. Now even if they spend 500 on food still they may not be able to afford medicines or fulfill the needs of education to their children.
Secondary Poverty is a condition that is enough to maintain the physical existence but the money is not spent wisely by the person in such a condition. For example, a family earns rupees 200 per day but requires at least rupees 40 to get food, water, medicine, etc. Suppose they spent rupees 180 on a family vacation and left with only rupees 20 to fulfill necessities of life which is completely insufficient to get them food, water, etc. if they had spent the money wisely; they could have been able to fulfill their basic needs and demands.
As a result, there are various types of poverty which depend upon a variety of factors. The most prominent factors are locality or area, environment, economic conditions of the country. The poverty line differs from country to country. And in developed countries poverty is so uncommon.
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