Schizophrenia is a severe mental sickness in which people depict reality abnormally. It may result in a consolidation of hallucinations, delusions, and intense disordered thinking and attitude that damage daily working, and can be wrecking. The accurate cause of schizophrenia is still unknown, but factors like genetics, environment, brain chemistry, and structure might play a crucial role. There are various types of schizophrenia, each of which is distinguished from the rest due to its unique characteristics.
Paranoid Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations and delusions, the person finds it difficult to differentiate between what’s real and what’s not. They face problems in leading a normal life. It is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of this chronic illness. Disorganized speech and disorganized behavior are some of the symptoms that develop during Paranoid Schizophrenia. This subtype can be controlled with medications and therapy, medications termed as the antipsychotics help to alleviate some of the major symptoms like delusions and hallucinations. If detected at an early stage, it can be controlled well, but if the person has reached the later stage, then hospitalization is essential.
Hebephrenic Schizophrenia also termed as the disorganized subtype of Schizophrenia. The inappropriate emotional response, false beliefs, false perceptions, inappropriate laughter, incoherent speech, and thought, etc. are its characteristics. It used to be considered as a subtype, but since 2013, it is no longer included under the heading Schizophrenia. A person suffering through this specific type finds it difficult to carry out daily activities like eating, showering, etc.
Catatonic Schizophrenia affects the way we move, i.e the patient will be mute and still or they might become hyperactive for no reason. A major sign that you are suffering from it is that you will not carry out motor activities normally even though you are physically capable of doing so. Other symptoms might include parroting other person’s behavior, sluggish response, staring, repeated movements, etc. It usually appears during the late teens or young adulthood. This disorder stays lifelong but through treatment, you can ease out its symptoms. We are yet to discover what exactly triggers this disorder but factors like a family history of schizophrenia, drugs, and alcohol addiction can play an important role.
The term Undifferentiated Schizophrenia is used when the patient demonstrates symptoms that fit into two or more subtypes of schizophrenia. Eg: The person suffering from this might display the symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia-like hallucinations and delusions. At the same time also demonstrate the symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia-like repeated movements, standing mute and still. The treatment includes medications, therapies, and support groups.
Simple Schizophrenia demonstrates symptoms such as lack of motivation, lack of initiative, apathy, avolition, low activity, etc. Use of the antipsychotic medications is usually the first line of treatment used. Delusions and hallucinations are not noticeable, and this disorder is less psychotic compared to the hebephrenic, paranoid, and catatonic subtypes.
Residual schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia in which the person displays only negative symptoms of schizophrenia. To better understand this type, it is essential to know the difference between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Positive symptoms include hallucination, talking in a made-up language, delusions, inappropriate behavior, etc., whereas negative symptoms include lack of interest, flat or blunt emotions, lack of normal range of thoughts, etc. To be diagnosed with this disorder, people must display positive symptoms for at least six months. Once the positive symptoms disappear, negative symptoms will continue for some time. During this phase where only negative symptoms are displayed, a person is categorized as a residual schizophrenic.
People suffering from cenesthopathic schizophrenia encounter unusual bodily sensations. This subtype is majorly characterized by abnormal and strange body sensations, eg: the patient might feel as if he is coiled in wire, his body parts are burning, etc. 18% of the schizophrenic patients suffer from this particular subtype. This type is included in the category of ‘other schizophrenia’ according to ICD-10 but isn’t specifically defined. The word cenesthopathy is derived from the Greek word ‘koinos’ meaning feeling and ‘pathos’ meaning suffering.
Unspecified psychotic spectrum is diagnosis assigned to persons who are displaying symptoms of schizophrenia or any other psychotic symptoms but they fail to meet the entire diagnostic criteria or any other psychotic disorder. The symptoms generate stress and damage functioning in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In simple words, symptoms match the general conditions for a diagnosis but fail to fit into any of the categories. The treatment is conducted after a detailed analysis of the symptoms, the treatment includes therapy, counseling, and medications. This type is different from undifferentiated schizophrenia. In it, there is a combination of symptoms from two or more types. Whereas, unspecified subtype the symptom does not entirely meet any category.
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